This policy learning tool is primarily designed for policy makers and government officers who need to carry out M&E and report on the progress and impact of Payment for Forest Environmental Services (PFES policies). While this policy learning tool is designed to meet policy makers’ need to understand the impact, opportunities and challenges of PFES, it can also be adapted by analysts, program sponsors and managers, practitioners in research and research funding organizations, and professional evaluators for their own needs in understanding and identifying areas for PFES improvement.